AC21 AOS Portability

AC21 is the name given to a law that provides for several matters including the ability to change jobs while an employment-based green card is pending (I-485 AC21 portability) and to start working for an H-1B employer as soon as transfer petition is filed with the USCIS.

AC21 Green Card Portability after 180 days of I-485 Pendency - Part 1

Substantial transcription for video

AC21 Green Card Portability after 180 days of I-485 Pendency - Part 1



Recorded 27 July 2012



Hello, everyone.  I want to talk today about AC21.  There is a lot of mystery, a lot of mystique.  People have been asking questions for a few years now, and I’m still not done answering all of the questions.  So I thought I’d just record this for you and hopefully I’ll cover most of the issues that I remember.  In case I am missing something, let me know.  Of course, this is just the first part.  I intend to do several parts on this AC21 issue.  If you have any follow up questions, you are welcome to send us an email through the Contact Us form on



What exactly is AC21?



AC21 is an abbreviation for a law called American Competitiveness in the Twenty-First Century Act.  I think the law was enacted by Congress back in October 2000.  So the law has been in effect for fully 12 years, and USCIS has still not given us regulations.  It’s very important to have regulations.  If you do not have regulations, we have only the bare bones of the law.  In IT industry, you think of it as having just a high-level design.  We do not have any user interface, we do not have any functionality program, we do not have the code, and we do not really know what the law will really look like in implementation.  The last comprehensive interpretation of AC21 was back in May 2005 through something called the Yates Memorandum, given by William R. Yates, which basically answered a lot of questions, but there are still a lot left unanswered.



What is AC21’s effect on H-1?



Basically, this allows you to get H-1 extensions beyond six years; it allows you to change jobs while the H-1 transfer is pending.  I’m not discussing this now.  I want to focus on Green Card.  I will address H-1 later.



AC21 effect on Green Card



Every EB-2, EB-3, and some EB-1 holders can change to a same or similar job as described in their Green Card with any employer anywhere in USA.  You are not geographically restricted.  If your green card was filed in Colorado, you can move to California or Washington, DC.  What is required is the jobs be same or similar.  



Your I-140 has been approved, and your I-485 has been pending for 180 days.  How are the 180 days counted?



180 days are counted based upon the pendency of I-485, not necessarily after the I-140 has been approved.  Let me explain.  Let’s say I file your I-140 and I-485 today.  After 150 days (five months), your I-140 gets approved, and now your I-485 has been pending 150 days.  We only need 30 more days to reach to that 180 day count.  In other words, we don’t have to start counting from the date the I-140 has actually been approved.  We count based upon how many days the I-485 itself was pending.  Once the I-485 is approved, then, by operation of law, we only count what has been remaining of 180 days.  Once again, I file today, both the I-140 and I-485.  After 150 days, I-140 gets approved.  Now I have to wait only 30 more days.



What if I leave before I-140 is approved?



Mr. Yates made it quite clear that, as long as I-140 was approvable when filed, even if you left, it’s not going to affect the merits of your AC21 claim.  Once again, if the I-140 was approvable when filed, even if you left, it’s not going to hurt the merits of your AC21 claim, but there is something to worry about.



Does the employer still have the intent to hire me back and I to rejoin?



In other words, what triggers AC21?  It is not the approval of the I-140.  What if my I-140 and I-485 were not filed together, as happens to a lot of people.  Of course, if they were filed together, then remember the 150 days example I gave.  Even if you left, the I-140 gets approved.  We only have to wait those extra 30 days, and we are comfortable in knowing that we are covered by AC21.  But what if my I-140 has been filed, but not my I-485?  Then I have to do this analysis.  Does the employer have the intention to hire back and I to rejoin them?  If so, when my priority date becomes current, I can file for I-485 based upon the letter given by the employer for whom I used to work.  If you leave before your I-140 is approved and before the I-485 is filed, you’ve got to have a way to file an I-485 through the employer who has sponsored you, who initially filed for you, who petitioned for you.  That means there must be an intention to hire and rejoin.



What if I leave before 180 days are over, but the I-140 is approved?



Now the hypothetical is a little different.  Remember the 150 day example.  What if I leave on the 150th day, my I-140 is approved, but I am still 30 days short of the 180 days that’s needed for the I-485 to be pending?  This hypothetical assumes that both the I-140 and I-485 are concurrently filed.  If they were not concurrently filed, then of course the previous analysis--the intent analysis--if the employer has the intent to hire me back, then I can file an I-485.  Remember, you can always carry the priority date forward.  That’s what we’re talking about.  Once the 1-140 is approved, the priority date can be carried forward.  We’re talking about AC21.  That’s a different law altogether.



If I leave on the 151st day, am I okay? 



You are okay as long as USCIS does not start questioning you on the 151st day.  Mr. Yates said this.  If you have left before 180 days and if you do not have a RFE response due back asking you about your job before the 180 days, you are okay.  If I got an RFE before I left and the RFE response is due before 180 days, then the chances are I cannot use the AC21.  I can only carry forward my priority date.  If you don’t get this, join me in a free community conference call, and I’ll run over your scenario step-by-step.



What if I leave before 180 days are over, but the I-140 is approved, I-485 is pending, and I left during the 151st day?  As long as an RFE response is not due before the 180 days, you are okay.  It’s fairly safe to assume that you are going to be fine in any of these scenarios where you’ve left before the 180 days are over, because, typically, the RFE itself gives you a few weeks to respond and, by that time, if you’ve thought it over, you can respond with a new job offer. 



What if I’ve left, but I don’t have a job for some time?  Let’s say you left on the 150th day.  Your I-485 pending and I-140 approved, or both are pending, what if you do not have a job for some time?  Same analysis applies as long as an RFE response is not due before the 180 days are over.  If it’s due before the 180 days are over, you could have some problem.  But, if it is not due, you should be all right.  If you do not have a job for some time, that’s okay, too.



May I port from a future job?



This is a very interesting analysis.  The Yates Memorandum clearly says yes.  So I am working for employer A  on a  H-1, and employer B  has filed for my green card as a future job or, maybe even if I used to work with employer B, then I left them, and they continued by green card.  It becomes a future job, then I am not working on that job.  You can actually file an I-140 and I-485 for a future job and still do an AC21 to any job.  You actually never even have to join the future job as long as your intentions were clean when you filed the I-485.  So yes, you can port from a future job, and you can even port without ever joining that employer.



May I port to my own company or business?



This is a question I’m asked quite a lot.  The answer is yes.  It is not forbidden.  Why the double negative?  I’ll tell you what I’m worried about.  When somebody ports to his or her own company or business, one of the most important things is, remember I talked about jobs must be same or similar?  This is where the problem occurs.  Let’s say your title was Biochemist or IT Engineer or Software Engineer or Systems Administrator.  When you start your company, you kind of become the CEO or Manager.  That’s not acceptable.  That could cause the problem.  But what if you have a company your wife is managing, and you’re just an employee?  That’s okay.  That can be done.  So when you port to your company or business, make sure you discuss this in detail with your lawyers.  Make sure you understand what you’re allowed to do and what you’re not allowed to do.



The same or similar analysis is very confusing.  We don’t have clear understanding.  The closest you are to the jobs being the same, the better off you are.



What do I mean by the same job?  



What if I was a Java Developer in one job and a .Net Developer in another job?  I think that’s okay.  This is my interpretation, because you’re still a developer.  Nowhere does the law say you must have the same technologies covering both jobs.  In my view, you are okay even with different technologies.  I’ve never had this view supported by the government, so consider this my guess, something I would be comfortable arguing in court if I have to.



What is required to do an AC21, and what does it involve?



There is no law on what you are required to do.  If you do not inform the government, you are not breaking any law.  But in most cases, it is a smart idea to inform the government.  Why?  Because if you are subject to AC21, you ported over, and then the old employer revokes the I-140, for somebody who has successfully ported, that does not have any effect on them.  The old employer can revoke the I-140.  You are still entitled to your AC21 benefits.  However, I have seen cases when an old employer revoked the I-140.  Instead of sending the usual RFE, USCIS sends a Notice of Intent to Revoke the I-485, and if you do not get it in timely manner, sometimes you could have an issue.  Then you have to file a Motion to Reopen.  It becomes messier.  You might not have work authorization, because your I-485 has been revoked.  That’s why, further down, I am going to advise you to keep your H-1 active in most of these cases.  Even though the chances of something going wrong are extremely small, they do exist, and I like to cover every possible bad scenario that I possibly can.  What you have to do is have your lawyers write a letter to the government saying that you are using AC21 and porting over to same or similar job.



May I transfer more than once using AC21?



Yes, you can do 20,000 change of employers.  AC21 does not say you can do it only once.



Should I keep my H-1 active?



I just spoke about that.  I think you should as far as humanly possible.  If, for whatever reason, you cannot, it’s okay.  You’re still reasonably safe as long as you keep track of your ****, but, where possible, keep your H-1 active.  It’s so much better for you.



What are the dangers in using AC21?



One thing that has always bothered me is, if for some reason your I-485 is denied, for example, you are out of status and not even knowing you are out of status and your I-485 gets denied, you lose your AC21.  This is something I’ve seen come up.  An employee was placed in California where the LCA was approved for Colorado.  That’s a violation of the H-1 laws.  Most employers don’t know that.  Unfortunately, some of my colleagues I’ve seen poorly advise that you can just file a new LC.  That’s not true.  H-1 amendments are needed when the move is beyond normal commuting distance.  Inadvertently, you have fallen out of status for more than 180 days.  Now your I-485 is deniable.  You did not know that.  The next thing is you’re getting a denial of I-485, and you are losing your right to AC21.  That’s one major danger that I see all the time.  Other than that, everything is covered if you can keep you H-1 active and, if you cannot, I feel that your risks are minimal.  We have filed hundreds, if not thousands, of AC21 cases.  I have not had a single case run into any kind of problem. 



Sometimes, you can be interviewed.  Does your risk of being interviewed increase because you’ve filed an AC21?



I personally don’t think so.  I don’t see any indication of that.  But, certainly, I’ve heard people say that that’s what happens.  I don’t feel that’s a major danger.  I don’t think that happens that frequently, but keep that in mind as well. 



Folks, I hope I was able to give you some useful information.  I know it’s kind of confusing, but we’ll keep talking about it until things become clearer.



Thank you for listening.  Good luck.

Impact of I-140 Revocation

Immigration Law

Substantial transcription for video

Impact of I-140 Revocation

13 July 2012

9.05 Mins

I have been meaning to share with you a few things about what we are noticing in the last few months, a whole flurry of I-140 denials, intents to revoke.  It appears that USCIS has gone back and revisited even approved I-140’s.  What happens is, in these cases, an employee who has nothing to do with an employer’s wrongdoing, if there is any wrongdoing in fact, gets stuck.


We represented a company—we’ve done this for three or four companies, but one company in particular comes to mind--they bought out another company—I think 100 or so employees--and I was actually involved in the merger and acquisition, and I suggested that they should escrow some money just to make sure that, if something goes wrong with the immigration compliance, we would have attorneys' fees to fight the problem.  And it did work out because, in fact, there was a problem.  What happened was the guy who sold the company had some issues—apparently, he had several companies—and he had some issues that were not brought to light until this company that hired us started filing their cases.  When they started filing I-140’s, USCIS came up with fraud allegations against the guy who sold the company.  What happens in these cases is that the employees could lose the right to AC21 if the revocation is for fraud.  They could lose their priority date if the revocation is for fraud.  And they could lose their right to extend their H-1’s if the revocation is for fraud. So the employee is the one who gets hurt the most.  When we got retained--there were about 20-25 cases--we went in and argued it out with the government and, happily, all cases were approved.  Each set of circumstances is unique.  Sometimes we can get approvals and sometimes we cannot get approvals.  This narrative doesn’t mean we’re always going to get approvals.  I just want to talk to you guys and explain to you that this is happening.  Don’t think that just because you have an I-140 approval, you’re good.


This morning, as I was going over the content on, I noticed a comment on our forums.  This person said this:


180 days on EAD will get over next week and I plan to go on AC21.  Sponsoring employer is being inquired into for some fraud.  No one knows exactly what’s going on.  He’s going over to a new company. 


These are his four questions.  I think it’s relevant to the whole community.  That’s why I’m recording this.

Will this fraud affect my I-485 application?  Will I get an RFE?


First of all, no one can predict whether or not you will get an RFE.  Whether the fraud will affect your I-485 depends on whether or not the I-140 is considered to be fraudulent.  The biggest problem in these cases is because the I-140 is the employer’s application.  The employee does not get a notice, so before you know it, you get a Notice of Revocation of I-485 because, without your knowledge as an employee, the I-140 has been revoked.  This is very unfortunate.  It’s a good idea for those of you who are moving or who want better information or handle on your I-140 to stay in touch with your lawyers.  Make sure they know where you are and make sure they send a copy of the I-140 RFE. In Virginia, I am required by law to allow equal access to both the employer and the employee.  So, if there is an RFE, by ethical obligation, I am required to give a copy to the employee as well.  I am not sure if the Bar would frown upon redacting certain portions that might be very specific to the employer’s tax history, etc.  But normally, we need to give you enough information so that you can protect yourself, so that should be the ethical obligation for all lawyers.  Therefore, you should be able to get some information if there is an I-140 revocation notice or intent to revoke issued by USCIS.  The problem is, if the I-140 gets revoked for fraud, everything goes away--your right to carry forward your priority date, your right to get an  H-1 extension,  your right to do an AC21 successfully--all of that goes away.  However, if the employer is willing to appeal, then while the appeal is pending, you can go ahead and keep getting your H-1 extensions.

Does it matter where you are shifting using AC21?



If this is a question related to geographical location, it does not.

Does a full time contracting offer matter?

You should not have a 1099.  You should be on a W2.

Of course, there is a language in the Yates Memorandum of May 2005, which is the only definitive memo on AC21, which talks about doing an AC21 transfer over to a company you yourself own, but there’s a whole slew of issues connected with that.  Actually, I think I have a lot of information on my blogs on this.


Does a big or a small company matter?


In my view, it does not matter.  Not for AC21 purposes.


I want to add that there was a case recently from a federal court—I have the name of the case in my records-- where the court was quite offended by USCIS coming back after several years and revoking an I-140 that had already been approved.  I think there are some really tricky legal problems with USCIS revoking cases that have long been settled.  Be that as it may, all I can do is sensitize you to the issues and concerns. 


Feel free to bring up whatever you have in our next free community conference call.  Information about our free community conference calls is on the website.


Good talking with all of you.  Good luck.

After I get my green card, is it legal to work for two companies (and not the original company) simultaneously?

Question details

I got my GC on March of 2016 through my then employer. Soon after getting my GC my project ended (May 2016) abruptly because of the change at client location. I did not had any project at hand so I started looking for a new job and started to work with new employer in June of 2016. There was no official end date of my employment with my previous employer through which I got my GC because they were looking for a new project for me but without any certainty how long it could be before they can find me a new project. While they were looking for a project for me, I already started working for my new employer so I just moved on without any official end date with my previous employer.

In Feb of 2019, I started a second job with another employer. Currently, I'm working 2 jobs full time on GC.

I am now eligible to file for citizenship through 5 years of permanent residency requirement. I'm worried if there will be any issues while I file for my citizenship because I did not stay with the employer that file my GC long enough after receiving my GC. Also will there be any issues because I am currently working 2 full time jobs when I file for citizenship?

Video URL
FAQ Transcript

I think it is fine, I personally don't see this as a problem and you will be able to file for citizenship. However, I would still want you to consult with a lawyer discuss your particular case understand the pros and cons.


Note: Where transcribed from audio/video, this is a verbatim transcript of the referenced audio/video media delivered as oral communication, and, therefore, may not conform to written grammatical or syntactical form.

Laid off before getting Green Card, I-485 pending! How to renew Green Card?

Question details

I have a situation of my relative - person has the employment based green card received on Mar 12, 2012, Received EAD in 2007. However lost the job(job termination) (Nov 2, 2011) 4 months before to receive the Green Card. At the time when GC was approved (March 12,2012) person was not having the job, and there after person couldn't gone to job. Could you let us know what to do for GC renewal and for citizenship.

Video URL
FAQ Transcript

In my opinion it is fine because there was nothing wrong with your intention to continue working and if your I-485 has been pending 180 days I think you are very well protected.


Note: Where transcribed from audio/video, this is a verbatim transcript of the referenced audio/video media delivered as oral communication, and, therefore, may not conform to written grammatical or syntactical form.